Institute IAO Fraunhofer Society

However, recently the company introduced a limited run in weekend – 300 miles. Every mile over that limit costs 21 cents. For example, a one-day round trip from Berlin to the Baltic 'pulls' the 500 miles. That is, according to this tariff, the price of car rental with final payment will rise to 42 euros and will cost from 128 euros. A similar limitation on the mileage at the weekend and introduced the company Europcar.

True, this company is more generous – 600 miles. Accordingly, a one-day outing from Berlin to the Baltic Sea and back well within the allotted limit, and will cost 84 euro tariff. On working days with no limit on mileage this car from Europcar worth 108 euros, Sixt – 85 euros. Rates unlimited mileage on the weekends until offer Avis and Hertz – 99,56 euros and 116 euros respectively. Average annual data for comparison, according to the Institute IAO Fraunhofer Society named in Stuttgart (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft), last year the average price of renting a car in the compact class Depending on the length was as follows: – one day – 95 euros – three days – 207 euros – for a week – 303 euros.

According to that used in this case, the procedure, all vehicles are divided into nine classes. Average amount of weekly rent in Depending on the category last year was in Germany from 206.93 euros to 635.29 euros, that is, in this case – from 30 to 90 euros per day. Extra charges and surcharges Many firms charge a special fee for vehicles equipped with winter tires. Margin can reach 15 euros per day. Experts recommend not to save money and at the same time criticized the company for what they do require to pay for this service. In the event of a crash summer tires in winter is expensive. Speaking of insurance. General the amount of the rent can be somewhat reduced by choosing an insurance plan with an equity participation in the event of an accident, but this kind of economy is fraught with serious financial consequences in case of accident. Calmer Still arrange full insurance. Increasingly, customers faced with a surcharge for delivery vehicles in another city, that is, not where they took her. This supplement can also reach 15 euros. On the other hand, some companies rent a car for rent for free if the customer 'overtakes' it from one city to another, where the demand is higher. But such cases are rare. Many car rental offices offer discounts members of German clubs, car enthusiasts, such, ADAC or AvD, – 30 percent. Special discounts are available for holders of credit cards issued by different banks and companies, which with rolling companies signed separate agreements. For comparison, rates in Germany may be use a specialized Internet portals. Source

How To Paint A Car

Thus, the filler Glas, with glass, is characterized by high mechanical strength, and therefore it is recommended to fill deeper irregularities. The length of the fibers in it are not very big – about 1-1.5 cm vymeshivat This allows her as well as all other types of fillers, namely – chopping motions, trying to squeeze out the air mass. Putty is very durable, so you can patch up even small pockets of rust. However, at large surfaces where the metal 'plays' (for example, the roof of the car) use this type of filler is not worth it, because it is completely inelastic. Optimal use of space – pillar sills, arches and other details of the bottom of the car. Alu – Putty with particles of aluminum – a fairly universal product.

Because of its very fine structure (perhaps one of the most fine-grained coatings), can fill even very minor scratches. The risk Education chipped in places of transition from fine-finish surface to neshpaklevannoy minimal. At the same time, is characterized by high mechanical strength. Especially recommended for work on horizontal surfaces, subjected to temperature effects (such as hood of the car) due to high content of aluminum, it has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to the same value of the metal. This allows prevent cracking and peeling in places puttying. Putty least prone to shrinkage: filling in the form of aluminum powder is unable to saturate a large amount of solvent. The lightweight filler Leicht 30% lighter than conventional fillers.


Machine – an essential element of every man. With cars, people become more independent, looks better in the opinion of others. Chief among all the funds for better performance car – engine oil engine. Now many types and manufacturers of oil – but the main types are synthetic and semisynthetic oils. Any engine oil is unique and individually. For example, motor oil 10w-40 or motor oil 5w-30 is seriously known in America.

The main advantage of 10w-40 and 5w-30 – extend the usage. It creates a protective film, which creates a protection during the engine start. Changed oil consumption, high performance cleaning and poor ability to the formation of deposits – the main advantages of synthetic oil. Before using a synthetic, better try to use semi-synthetic oil, which eliminates leakage. Antifreeze – antifreeze is a replacement for vehicle. Antifreeze antifreeze great substitute, but better save your cost.

These additives are working to improve their working abilities. The main types of additives: anti-isolated and depressants. Additives made in conjunction with anti-freeze to increase the effect of quality. Motor oil – oil used to lubricate the piston and rotary internal combustion sgoraniya.V depending on the purpose they are divided into oils for diesel engines, gasoline engine oils and multigrade engine oils, which are designed to lubricate engines of both types. All of the modern motor oils are made up of base oils and improve their properties prisadok.Po temperature limits performance motor oils are divided into summer, winter and all season. According to the composition of the base oil motor oil are divided into synthetic and mineral (avtol) and partly Synthetic (mixture of mineral and synthetic components). We offer a wide range of engine oils from leading European manufacturers: Liqui Moly, Areca, Texaco, Chevron, ERG, Meguin and other brands. Here you can buy everything for technical Service your car at prices below avtorynochnyh! HG offers a new approach to home care! Each product must decide its own specific task, while remaining as safe for the surface rights and the environment. That is why, HG is not a panacea, and complex products for more effective and gentle care items, consisting of tools for cleaning, restoration and protection various surfaces. Through the use of well-chosen compounds, reduces cleaning time and you have more free time for recreation.

Engine Cooling System

The cooling system of a modern car consists of several main elements: the cooling jacket of the cylinder, which is a cavity in the walls around the combustion chambers, radiator, expansion tank, pump; Thermostat fan located in front of the radiator; thermode; connecting pipes (hoses) Antifreeze. The function of the cooling system – to maintain optimum engine temperature under various conditions. It achieved as follows. The circulation of coolant in the system is ensured by a liquid pump, and can occur in small or large circle. Small circle includes the cooling jacket of the cylinder, thermostat and pump. On this path, bypassing the radiator circulates antifreeze after a cold start to the set operating temperature. Low, released by the combustion of gasoline, antifreeze is absorbed in the moment of passing them shirts cooling of the cylinder. By keeping its own heat engine warms up faster.

When the optimum temperature is reached, the thermostat responds to it. The main valve thermostat opens and the liquid conducted in a large circle. The elements of the small circle is now added to the radiator and the sensor. In the radiator is the heat transfer between a liquid and air. Then the cooled fluid continues to move to the water pump. If the temperature rises too much, triggered sensor, connecting to the process fan.

Fan pumps air through the core of the radiator increases the intensity of this heat transfer. Depending on the mode of the engine coolant temperature is constantly changing and therefore change and its volume. The resulting surplus of antifreeze out of overflow tank, and excess vapor pressure discharged through the valve reservoir tank cover. Upon cooling, the reverse is true, and the tank gets air from the atmosphere. Through the expansion tank and pouring antifreeze poizvoditsya system. Each element of the system plays an important role. a 'knockout' of at least one of the links in the chain, if not immediately resolve the problem, can lead to system failure or entirely in the best case, or the engine to overheat, with all consequences. Source: 'Vito-Service' – repair of radiators and bumpers, car in Moscow

Hub Bearings. Practical Advice On Replacement And Maintenance

They are not visible and usually becomes audible, when it is too late – it is a wheel bearing. We give you the information to a certain state of the art, as well as some practical advice on diagnosis and wheel bearing grease car. As a general rule, professionals in the field of Autoservice recall wheel bearing, when a client complains about the noise of the wheels. But we must not forget that car wheel bearing subject to extreme stress: high temperature extremes, and various environmental influences (not least in salt), and, as a result of the perception of attacks by roughness of the road, drive, brakes and steering – different dynamic loads. Given these circumstances hub bearings should be inspected regularly. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that wheel should rotate without backlash, with acceptable noise, and minimal friction. In passenger cars, two types of wheel bearing.

To not drive axles, though less frequently, used roller tapered bearings. They are small and lightweight. Due to relatively low pressure at one point can transmit large loads and still be very durable. However, they have one drawback: performance conical bearing is largely dependent on the proper installation. If the bearing is installed properly: his failure is almost programmed. This is true both for initial installation and for subsequent service. On the drive axles are used so-called diagonal ball bearings. From their titles it is clear that the balls are not placed in the middle of the body, but shifted to one side.

American Petroleum Institute

Pour point, driven generally in the technical characteristics of the oil is obtained through laboratory tests and is the temperature at which the oil is almost completely loses its fluidity (mobility). In fact, the performance of engine oil is lost much earlier, even at much lower temperatures than when it has already lost the ability to be pumped regular system of engine lubrication. Thus, the selection of oils for use in the winter must be guided not by freezing point and viscosity class SAE. – For all brands of whether vehicles can use motor oil viscosity grades 5W-… and OW-…

by SAE? There are no restrictions on the use of engine oil viscosity grades of data are not available. These classes are also suitable for older and worn out engines. The exception is when manufacturers specifically forbid the use of these viscosity grades in Rila some design features of the engine. Example: The engine of SMZ 1300 Skoda Felicia, which are features of the mechanism of timing chain lubrication oil spray through the nozzle. – How to determine the quality of motor oil? There are two most common specifications for motor oil quality: – API – American Petroleum Institute – ACEA (SSMS) – an association of European manufacturers are currently specification API has the following classes:-Gasoline engine: SA, SB, SC, SD, SF – old” classes of SG, SH, SJ – acting classes so is, those requirements for the application which you can find instructions for the operation of vehicles ranging from about ’89 release.